The Minute Book
Thursday, 23 March 2017

Field Service Dress for Officers (1892)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Field Service Dress for Officers (1892)

Militia General Orders

Headquarters, Ottawa, 24th March, 1892

General Order (5)—No. 1
Field Service Dress for Officers

The Serge Patrol Jacket of the pattern approved for the Imperial Army has been adopted for the officers of the Canadian Militia, and will be worn in marching, field-day and drill order.

A detailed description is appended and sealed patterns will be issued to the Royal Schools of Instruction to secure uniformity.

Cavalry

Serge Patrol Jacket. Blue; (in Canadian Mounted Rifles and 3rd Prince of Wales' Dragoons, scarlet,) of the same cut as the serge frock now issued at the Royal School of Cavalry, Quebec, for non-commissioned officers and men. Full in the chest, collar and cuffs of the same colour and material as the rest of the jacket. Shoulder-straps of cloth of the colour of the regimental facings, with a small regimental button at the top. Badges of rank in gold.

Artillery

Blue Serge: Welted seams; stand-up collar, square in front, fastened with one hook and eye, a grenade, two and one-quarter inches long, in gold embroidery at each end; shoulder-straps of the same material as the garment, fastened at the top with a small black netted button, half an inch in diameter, badges of rank embroidered in gold. Five gilt ball-buttons down the front; a slit on each side, sleeves ornamented with flat plait, forming crow's feet six inches from bottom of the cuffs; two inside breast pockets and watch pocket.

Infantry and Engineers

Scarlet Serge: Full in the chest. Collar, cuffs and shoulder-straps of cloth of the same colour of the regimental facings. A small regimental button at the top of the shoulder-strap. Badges of rank in gold. Collar rounded in front with black enamelled leather tab and hook and eye. Two pleats on each side; on the left side an opening for the support of the sword belt. Five small regimental buttons down the front. A patch pocket with pointed flap and small button on each breast. Cuffs pointed five inches deep in front, and two inches deep behind. Scarlet lining, no collar badge.

Rifles

Rifle Green Serge: Square in front, stand-up collar with hook and eye and black silk tab. A body seam on each side, seven regimental horn buttons down the front. Two pockets on each side with pointed flaps. A small button with tab under each flap. A drawing string inside at the waist. Shoulder-straps of the same material as the garment, a small button at the top. Badges of rank in bronze. Collar and cuffs of the same colour at the regimental facings.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Sunday, 19 March 2017

Will Close Messes if There is Abuse (1914)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Will Close Messes if There is Abuse (1914)

Minister of Militia's Views on Liquor Question in Regimental Messes

The Montreal Gazette, 19 March 1914

While it is not the principle of the Militia Department to interfere with the privilege of having liquor in the regimental messes, those in which abuses occur will be immediately closed, according to a statement made to The Gazette last night by Col. The Hon. Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia, who was in Montreal for the purpose of opening the St. Matthew's Church bazaar. The messes, however, he thought, should be closed at the same time as the bars. Reports are coming in from the different divisions and any action will probably be regulated by these, although no drastic change is likely to be made.

The question of liquor in regimental messes has been the subject of considerable interest in Montreal during the past six weeks. Early in February, a circular letter was issued to all officers commanding regiments, informing them that, owing to reports of abuse, the Department was considering entirely removing the privilege of having liquor in the messes. This was followed early in March by an order from divisional headquarters to the effect that the Craig Street Drill Hall would have to be closed early in the evening. The order was later modified, however, to forbidding the use of liquor after 7 o'clock on Saturdays.

Discussing the situation last night, Col. Hughes stated that it was not his intention to interfere with such privileges in the messes, as long as there was no abuse. Where abuses existed in an armory, however, the mess would be immediately closed. It was the abuse and not the use of liquor that was objected to. Temperance was making rapid strides all over the Dominion, and only four cases of abuses had been reported to the Department of Militia from the whole of Canada. Drinking, continued the minister, was dying out, and a far greater respect for the uniform was evident. No liquor would be allowed in the camps because there attendance was compulsory. In the messes, matters were different, and no person need go there who did not like them.

Reports were being made on the liquor question in the various divisions, said Col. Hughes, and although it was not likely that any further action would be taken at present any changes in the regulations would be based on these reports. He was in favor of closing the messes at the same time that the bars closed as there was no reason why men should be turned out of the hotels and then be able to go to a regimental club and continue drinking. Any such order would apply equally to all armories, as all were the property of the Government.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 5 January 2017 12:57 PM EST
Friday, 17 March 2017

1st Company, 1st Regiment, Disbanded (1865)
Topic: Canadian Militia

1st Company, 1st Regiment, Disbanded (1865)

Headquarters. Quebec, 17th March, 1865.

Volunteer Militia Lower Canada

General Orders, No. 1

His Excellency the Commander in Chief has been pleased to direct that Captain Hanson's Company, No. 1, of the 1st (Prince of Wales Regiment) of Volunteer Rifles, be removed from the list of Volunteer Militia. The officers and men of this Company having been guilty of a gross act of insubordination, in refusing to obey the orders of the Officer Commanding the Regiment, when directed to equalize the Battalion for inspection by the Inspecting Field Officer, on the 13th December last. An act by which that Company, not only compromised the character of the Regiment to which it belonged, but also that of the Force generally.

Obedience to orders, emanating from superior authority, is the first duty of the Volunteer as well as of the Regular soldier, and unless this cardinal principle in military matters is well understood, and fully acted upon, no discipline worthy of the name can ever be maintained. It is to be regretted that with this Company, the warning and admonition, which it received on a previous occasion, for an offense similar in character, should have produced so little effect, as to have rendered it necessary for His Excellency to have to resort to the extreme measure of disbanding the Company, by its repetition in the present instance.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:07 AM EDT
Sunday, 12 March 2017

Trafficking by NCOs of the Permanent Force
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia General Orders

Headquarters
Ottawa, 18th March, 1894

General Order No. 16

Trafficking by NCOs of the Permanent Force Forbidden

1.     The Major General has observed that the practice has grown up at several permanent stations of allowing N.C. Officers to act as purveyors of various articles for the use of soldiers, and that stoppages are made from the soldiers' pay in respect of arcticles furnished by them or through such N.C. Officers.

2.     This practice tends towards very serious abuses and irregularities. All trafficking by N.C. Officers is therefore strictly forbidden.

3.     Commanding Officers are required to exercise a constant supervision over the charges made against soldiers' pay in the Monthly Pay Sheet, and to limit such charges strictly to those permitted by Regulation, or by special authority of the Major General Commanding.

4.     A return will be sent to the Assistant Adjutant General at Headquarters, on the last day of each month, showing the average decustion made from the pay of each rank in respect of:—

(a.)     Regimental charges.

(b.)     Stoppages credited to the public.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Thursday, 2 March 2017

The Militia Camp; 17 Sept 1885
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Militia Camp; 17 Sept 1885

Settling Down to Steady Drill
The Strength of the Brigade Over 2,100

At former camps a visitor would meet with one soldier with a tunic of red flannel and no trimming, another with a red tunic and white trimmings; and others with red shoulder straps and collars, and other again with blue collars and shoulder straps. An issue of new clothing has been made and has done away with this state of things.

The London Advertiser, London, Ont., 17 September 1885

The first night in camp [on Carling's farm, present location of Wolseley Barracks, London, Ontario] was not one of unalloyed comfort. The weather was rather cold, with several showers, and many of the men had but very slim shake-downs. However, to-day everything was in good shape and everybody made comfortable. The night was uneventful, with the exception of a row in which a member of the 30th Battalion quarreled with two civilians and was knocked down and kicked in the face, and both eyes blackened. This morning marching drill in companies was commenced, and although in some of the battalions the majority of the men are new recruits and undisciplined, they are rapidly picking up their drill. Sergt.-Major Byrne, of the 7th [Fusiliers], who is brigade sergeant-major, is the right man to bring them up to the work. Although a Canadian, and still in the prime of life, he has served 21 years in the British army and is a thorough soldier. A better selection could not have been made to fill one of the most important posts connected with the camp. No one visiting the camp can fail to notice the bright, smart-looking appearance of the volunteers. At former camps a visitor would meet with one soldier with a tunic of red flannel and no trimming, another with a red tunic and white trimmings; and others with red shoulder straps and collars, and other again with blue collars and shoulder straps. An issue of new clothing has been made and has done away with this state of things. Some years here the absurd way in which some of the battalions were dressed was enough to make them the laughing stock of all old military men. Now they have a smart, soldierly appearance. If the Minister of Militia would make another move and issue a regulation cap for all infantry corps it would further add to the appearance of the men. Here you'll meet two men, one with a round cap on his head and the other with a Scotch cap, neither of which afford the least protection from the sum. Here and there a private may be met with an officers' cap on, while some of them haven't caps at all, but appear in their "stiff felts."

The Strength of the Brigade

The strength of the brigade as shown by the number of rations drawn yesterday, was 2,060 and the staff.

The force is divided up as follows:

  • Cavalry, 126 men and 11 officers;
  • Artillery, 182 men and 8 officers;
  • 21st Battalion, 210 men and 19 officers;
  • 22nd Battalion, 340 men and 27 officers;
  • 24th Battalion, 230 men and 15 officers;
  • 25th Battalion, 200 men and 20 officers;
  • 28th Battalion, 230 men and 27 officers;
  • 30th Battalion, 380 men and 32 officers;

The total number, however, will exceed this when all are settled down.

Brigade Orders; Brigade camp, London, Sept. 16

Detail for to-morrow—Field officer of the day, Lt.-Col. McNight, 28th Battalion, next for duty, Lt.-Col. Munroe, 22nd Battalion; surgeon of the day, Surgeon King, First Regiment of Cavalry; next for duty, Surgeon Smith, 28th Battalion; the 24th Battalion will furnish brigade duties, viz., guard, picket, band, etc.; next for duty, 25th Battalion.

No. 1—Officers commanding corps of infantry are particularly requested to see that non-commissioned officers and men under their command are instructed in the use of the rifle and its sights, how to align the latter, and that in aiming the men place themselves in a proper position. Target practice will be carried out during camp, Major Bigger, brigade musketry instructor, will supervise all instructions.

No. 2—There being but one medicine chest for the whole brigade, it will be kept in charge of tent opposite and south of the brigade orderly tent, in order that surgeons may be supplied with the medicines they may require for the use of the members of their respective corps.

No. 3—All mail matter will be delivered to the Brigade orderly tent until further orders.

M. Aylmer, Lieut.-Col.

The Pipes Are There

The 22nd Oxford Rifles have with them two Highland pipers, Mr. George Gordon Fraser, of Woodstock, and Mr. Wm. Gunn, of Embro. They have their bagpipes with the, and for a certain time each day enliven the camp with their characteristic strains. Mr. Fraser in an old soldier, who served in a Highland regiment through the Chinese war. Mr. Gunn is a Highlander by birth.

Notes

No word of General Middleton's proposed visit has been received by the brigade officers here. However, as he is at present at the Niagara camp, it is probably he will also visit London.

The London Field Battery under Captain Williams went into camp yesterday, 40 strong.

The London troop of cavalry makes a fine turnout under Major Peters, 39 strong. They have some excellent horseflesh under them, and are a credit to the city. Mr. Owens is sergeant-major and Mr. John Siggins quartermaster-sergeant.

The various battalions will be put through a course of musketry instruction and rifle practice during the camp. This is a new feature of the camp, but a practical one for all that. The fact that efficiency with the rifle is more necessary to a corps in active service than being able to march past a saluting point in good line seems gradually beginning to be recognized. The rifle practice will be done at the Cove range.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Sunday, 26 February 2017

New Brunswick Defenceless (1858)
Topic: Canadian Militia

New Brunswick Defenceless (1858)

The Military Gazette, Quebec, P.Q., 26 June 1858

But what has New Brunswick done in the way of self-defence, or in preparing for war? Nothing! We have no organized militia, no drill, no paid Adjutant or Quartermaster-General; we have lots of fine arms in the armouries, but the saddles and the trappings are rotting, and the rifles, muskets, and swords are rusting, because there is no one employee to take care of them. We rely upon British arms to protect us, instead of contributing, as we ought to do towards the common army of the Empire; and we rely on men-of-war lying in Halifax harbour, to prevent a ship from a hostile country, or even a pirate, sailing, or steaming up the Bay of Fundy and levying a contribution on the city of St. John,—a thing so easily accomplished that we wonder no Russian commander thought of it during the late war. It is true, the defenceless state of St. John has not escaped the eyes of the British authorities, and fortifications are to be erected forthwith on Partridge Island; but no thanks to the Provincial Solons; they fold their arms, and look on with the gravity of Dutchmen. But who could expect anything from the character of the loyal men now in power? Since their late advent to power His Excellency the Lieut. Governor laid before them a Despatch received from the Colonial Secretary, hinting pretty plainly that war may be upon us when we least expect it, and that it is well to be prepared, and requesting that the Militia may be re-organized. Where is the response to this kind, parental advice? There is none. Government merely communicated the fact to the Legislature, and there allowed the matter to drop—they took no steps whatever to carry out the suggestion of the Imperial Government, and we still remain in a perfectly defenceless state.

Here for the present we conclude. Our purpose, when we commenced writing these papers, was to bring before the eyes of the people, in a manner as vivid and concise as possible, the condition of the people of Great Republic, and the probability of wat at not very distant period. If we have succeeded in this, and can arouse the public to a proper sense of danger, (we do not mean a cowardly fear) so that they insist upon the re-organization of the Militia, and giving proper encouragement to volunteer companies we shall have accomplished our object. —(Head Quarters)

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Friday, 24 February 2017

The Seventh's Sergeants (1885)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Seventh's Sergeants

Their First Annual Dinner a Decided Success

The London Advertiser, London, Ont., 15 September 1885

Sergt.-Major Byrne, of the 7th [Fusiliers], ... Although a Canadian, and still in the prime of life, he has served 21 years in the British army and is a thorough soldier. - The London Advertiser, 17 Sept. 1885

The first annual dinner of the sergeants of the Seventh Fusiliers was held last night at London House. Among those present were Sergt.-Major Byrne, Quartermaster-Sergt. Jury, Paymaster-Sergt. Smyth, Sergts. McDonald, Lyon, Summers, Neilson, Anundson, Rowland, Harris, McClintock, Mills, Beecroft, Lynch, Dyson, Corporal Williams, Private Best and others. Sergt.-Major Byrne was voted to the chair, and Staff-Sergt. Jury to the vice-chair. The evening was passed in an exceedingly jolly manner. Incidents which occurred on the Northwest trip were related with vim, and the "boys" told little good-natured jokes of each other which took place during the campaign in a way to cause the greatest amusement. Toasts were proposed and heartily drunk, to the Queen, Sergt.-Major Byrne, Quartermaster-Sergt. Jury, Paymaster-Sergt. Smyth, Adjutant Reid, the Army and Navy, Guests, coupled with the names of Corp. Williams and Pte. Best, the "Press," the "Host and Hostess," etc. To all these interesting and amusing responses were received. The proceedings were enlivened with songs, rendered in excellent voice, from the Sergt.-Major, Staff-Sergt. Jury, Sergt. Beecroft, Sergt Anundson, Pte. Best and others. During the evening the question of establishing a permanent sergeants' mess or club was raised, and all were unanimous in support of the idea. It was pointed out that if a "mess" was established where the sergeants could drop in every evening it would tend greatly to strengthen the battalion. Points for its welfare could be proposed and discussed, and instead of the sergeants of one company not knowing who the sergeants of the next company were, as in former times, they would be able to meet and discuss battalion affairs nightly, as well as pass a pleasant evening among themselves. This idea originated with Sergeant-Major Byrne, and if it can be successfully carried out will only add another obligation to the many which the battalion already owe their energetic sergeant-major. In establishing their club, however, considerable outlay will have to be met—more than the sergeants themselves could possibly bear—and it is their intention to ask the Council for use of the Park for a band concert, which will be given in the course of a few days.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Friday, 10 February 2017

How Canada Gets Along Minus Army (1925)
Topic: Canadian Militia

How Canada Gets Along Minus Army (1925)

Called Greatest Pacifist Nation Indifferent to Things Military
Militia is Reliance
3,000 Men in Uniform No One Interested in Soldiering

The Border Cities Star, Windsor, Ontario, 10 August 1925

Veterans of the C.E.F. for the most part brand any man who would join the army in times of peace as several kinds of lunatic at large.

Toronto, Aug. 10.—Under the heading "Canada, the Greatest of Pacifist Nations, Seems Indifferent to Things Military," the following article appears in the Toronto Weekly Star.

Until today, the world has never seen a great nation with flourishing seaports on two oceans, with ships carrying her merchant flag on the seven seas, and three thousand miles of frontier, unarmed and unprotected. It simply never happened in history.

Canadians are like no other people in the world. We are an Atlantic power, and a Pacific power. To the east is Europe carrying more bombs and side arms than in 1913, and to the west is the perennial yellow menace. In the Republic to the south last year the Government of the United states put on a "Defence day" and 16,000,000 Americans showed their interest in the affairs of arms by taking part. Even the South American republics have a total of 180,000 men under arms today. In the midst of all this Canadian go about the business of earning their daily bread with a general indifference to things military. It seems to be the accepted principle that it costs too much to have soldiers cluttering up the countryside. Maybe it is healthy.

Queer Lot

The permanent force is always the first to feel the knife of parliamentary economy which slices away methodically every year until infantry officers find they have only a few barrack sweepers to command and cavalrymen find nothing to ride in their riding schools.

We are a queer lot in Canada. Seven years ago we had an army of shock troops the equal of any fighting men in the world. Today, we have about 3,000 men in uniform and no-one is interested in soldiering. If there was any interest in it in Canada, it would have been capitalized by politicians and made a political issue long ago.

Next to tax collecting soldiering is the most thankless job, It takes genuine courage to hold His Majesty's commission in the Dominion in these piping times of peace—perhaps more courage than it did in the big bass drum days of Armageddon.

Veterans of the C.E.F. for the most part brand any man who would join the army in times of peace as several kinds of lunatic at large. The soldier is looked at askance as the most insignificant of civil servants, a sort of economic liability who must be tolerated for sake of old times. The permanent force is always the first to feel the knife of parliamentary economy which slices away methodically every year until infantry officers find they have only a few barrack sweepers to command and cavalrymen find nothing to ride in their riding schools.

Yet working quietly at their jobs every day, are a group of men who are making the most of the money appropriations for national defenses of this country. There are no grand manoeuvres every year in Canada. There are no great, glittering reviews. But the Canadian headquarters staff of the Department of National Defense—men who would be a credit to the Imperial war office—are from day to day working at the defense problems of Canada.

League's Opinion

In the lobbies of the League of Nations building at Geneva last year the younger men of the secretariats used to gather and talk informally. Conversations invariably turned to disarmament and the Canadians always interjected "Well, when you chaps get down to our basis of disarmament we'll begin to talk to you." But there was usually someone present who gently ruined the effect of the statement with a reminder that the British navy and the Monroe Doctrine made an ever-present row of bayonets around Canada, and that the unarmed condition of the Dominion was largely a matter of dollars and cents. It never failed to leave the Canadians without a "come back," and in their hearts they knew that their countrymen were more indifferent to armaments than any political influential people in the world.

By statute the enrolment in the Canadian permanent force is limited to 437 officers and 6,000 men. Actually the present strength is 413 officers and 3,085 men. The maintenance is of course in the hands of parliament. In 1924 when United States demonstrated its was resources on Defense day, Canada reduced her estimates for national defense by $1,000,000.

Horrible Example

South American republics have made such good fiction with the supposedly musical comedy armies made up mostly of generals.

So, with half the authorized strength, Canada's professional soldiers carry on. Pacifists say, "Well done, an example to the world," while militarists say "A horrible example of unpreparedness." Certainly it never happened before. No country claiming equality of nationhood with any nation on earth and about to send an ambassador to a foreign capital, ever stood in the international arena with a few minesweepers and about one battalion of infantry to back its claims.

Denmark not long ago announced that she was about to disarm and the world was amazed. Denmark's disarmament constituted a reduction of an army of 11,000 to a civil police force of about 6,000. Canada has done better (or worse) than that. Canada, with a score of lakes that could absorb Denmark, could parade the army, the navy, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and still go recruiting for enough to equal the 6,000 of "disarmed" Denmark.

South American republics have made such good fiction with the supposedly musical comedy armies made up mostly of generals. But, Chile with an army of 21,000 German-trained troops constantly under arms and the Argentine with a regular army of 18,000, assume the proportions of world powers. Brazil, with compulsory military training, has 42,000 men carrying arms, and Mexico, with a more stable government than she has had for 30 years, keeps 65,000 active soldiers.

Armed Powers

A few other examples of armed power are interesting: Japan, 16,000 officers and 216,000 other ranks; Russia (army and navy) 562,000; United States, army 36,500, navy 100,000; Irish Free State, 1,080 officers, 14,600 men. New Zealand has compulsory cadet training for all men between the ages of 12 and 25. South Africa requires men between 21 and 25 to belong to a rifle association and learn to handle firearms. Australia with compulsory military training of a senior cadet nature maintains nearly 6,000 active troops and a sea-going naval reserve of 8,000.

Analyzed, the condition of the Canadian permanent force is as follows. The figures speak for themselves and offer good arguments for pacifists and militarists. The Royal Canadian Dragoons consists of 17 officers and 272 men; and the net expenditure for the regiment was $64,814 during the fiscal year ended last March (a trifle less in the cost of upkeep than Mister Coolidge's White House policemen). Lord Strathcona's Horse maintains 16 officers and 183 men at a cost of $64,317. The Royal Canadian Artillery kept 56 officers and 617 men at a cost of $203,970. The three infantry regiments were: The Royal Canadian Regiment, 404 all ranks, $104,631; Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, 269 all ranks, $93,391; Royal 22nd Regiment (French-Canadian), 189 of all ranks, $43,396.

Military Costs

The Royal Military College at Kingston cost Canada $338,082 in the last fiscal year. The attendance for the year was 165, and as well as the regular studies for cadets, the college carried on staff courses for officers of the permanent and non-permanent militia.

On cadet service $450,000 was spent in 1923-24, which was the largest amount expended on this work since the war. The estimates for cadet work for 1925 have been reduced to $400,000. The total number of enrolled cadets was 110,000 for the year ending last March.

That is where Canada stands in military matters. The headquarters staff is concentrating its efforts on the maintenance of a training service. Consequently nearly a full quota (under the statute) of officers is maintained. The theory is that the officers will constitute a training staff for the non-permanent militia and a skeleton organization for a fighting force in times of emergency. It is tough work. Officers without men to command must have their hearts in their work to carry on.

Has War Plans

Present strength of the non-permanent militia is, on paper, 140,000. The figure is not to be taken literally. It is extremely optimistic but headquarters continues to carry the names of authorized militia units which are barely breathing, rather than let the slimmest organization be lost.

Canada has war plans. There are two complete combat schemes filed in the National Defense department. One is to meet emergencies of home defense, the other is to place an expeditionary force abroad in the event of Canada responding to an empire call. They don't talk much about them at headquarters but they think a lot about those plans and they don't tell the world their thoughts. Headquarters bets on the militia. In the long run they count on the all-round citizen soldier of Canada to do the big fighting jobs, and they tell you without boasting that there is no finer militia material in the world than in Canada. Present strength of the non-permanent militia is, on paper, 140,000. The figure is not to be taken literally. It is extremely optimistic but headquarters continues to carry the names of authorized militia units which are barely breathing, rather than let the slimmest organization be lost.

So, at Ottawa with sincerity and that devotion to duty which has always characterized their profession, a small group of highly trained officers works thoughtfully on iron rations. To these men the St. Lawrence River development, obscure harbors on the British Columbia coast, and the sand dunes of Sable Island have a significance unknown to civilians.

Meanwhile the world wonders. Is in Canada the pacifist vision coming true, or is she indifferent to the rattling sabres of the world?

Researching Canadian Soldiers of the First World War


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Friday, 27 January 2017

The Canadian Militia (1879)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Canadian Militia (1879)

The Montreal Gazette, 4 March 1879

The remarks of Lieutenant-General Sir Selby-Smith, in his annual report, on the necessity of an organized force which could always be depended on in case of such disturbances as those of which the country has recently has experience, are worthy of careful attention. The inconvenience of employing volunteers for the purpose of quelling riots in which their own fellow-citizens are the actors has often been felt; and we have not to go far in either space or time for illustrations of some of the bad results of the system. The formation of a small permanent force such as that which General Smyth suggests would remove that inconvenience and make the repression of disorder practicable without the risk of provoking complications that are the most difficult to deal with. As to the plan on which such a force should be raised, General Smyth has certainly quite sufficient military knowledge and experience, and well as acquaintance with the needs and capabilities of the Dominion, to enable him to frame one in every way suitable. It will have been seen that he proposes that three regiments should be maintained by the Federal Government, composed of two battalions each, to be raised and recruited in Canada, each battalion to serve in the old country and here for alternate terms of three years, thus completing their period of enlistment, which should be fixed at six years. At the close of their six years' service the men composing the battalions should pass into a reserve and receive a grant of land or some other inducement to settle permanently in the country, with a stake in it. By this system of alternation and interchange, complete solidarity would be established between the soldiers of Canada and that of the Empire, and our little Canadian force have full opportunity for thorough training, and be imbued with a British spirit. In case of war the system would be capable of expansion to any limits required. Another scheme proposed was that only three Canadian battalions should be formed, whioch should be interchanged triennially with an equal British force of the line. Hitherto, it appears that nothing has been done towards giving either suggestion a practical form, but it is hoped that the matter will not be lost sight of. Of course, the carrying out of such a plan would not interfere materially with our Canadian militia, as at present organized and composed. It would be from the militia that, in all likelihood, such a force would be, to a great extent, supplied and on it also it would have to mainly depend for the enlargement which extraordinary contingencies might necessitate. The value of such a force may be inferred from what general Selby-Smyth says in another part of his report regarding the probable effect of the muster of volunteers is this city last Queen's Birthday on the Fenian raiders who were at that time rumoured to be about to cross the line into Canada. He thinks, and with good reason, that there were Fenian spies present on that occasion and that the sight of so large a body of well trained and well equipped soldiers, whom they would have to encounter, if they attempted to put their project into execution, had a salutary influence in deterring them from the menaced movement. How much more would such disturbers be cowed into tranquility is a permanent force, always armed and prepared to meet invasion, were maintained in the Dominion! In a short time we should probably be put to no more trouble or expense (and such occasions have cost us our share of both) from such unscrupulous free booters.

The report goes on to make some excellent suggestions as to the proper administration of the militia force. It is to be noted that some of these suggestions merely call for the enforcement of the existing laws on the subject—a telling commentary on the manner in which it has been hitherto neglected. We do not intend just now to take them all into consideration, but we have no dough that they will receive from the proper authorities the attention which is their due. Of […missing line of text…] Corporation of Montreal—that which regards the rebuilding of the drill shed. It is advised that the Government should urge on our Municipal Council the duty of re-construction or, in the case of refusal or neglect, due for the value at stake, $12,000. This is a matter which demands immediate settlement, and it is hoped it will be arrived at with as little delay as possible. Both this and several others of the suggestions to which we direct attention have already been made to no purpose. It is evident from them and from the whole tenor of the report that our militia force has, up to the present, by no means received the attention of which such a force in a country of the extent, population and position of Canada is worthy.

In a paper contributed to the February number of Rose-Belford's Magazine, entitled "A Plea for the Militia," by "Two Militiamen," the whole case is very clearly and patriotically stated. After speaking of our national pride, our great extant and resources, and our growing importance, the writers very opportunely ask how we should maintain our rights, protect our liberties and retain our possessions, if Great Britain's naval and military assistance were withheld or withdrawn. They then very pointedly contrast our position from a military standpoint with some of the smaller European powers, giving a result which is far from flattering to our self-love. The Netherlands, with a population of less than 4,000,000, expend for military purposes £1,541,909, have an army of 61,947 men, a navy of 47 ships, with 705 guns, manned by 9,200 men, and a militia of 100,323 men. Switzerland, with a population of less than 3,000,000, expends £586,237, has an army of 84,369 men, a reserve of 50,069 men, and a militia force of 65,981 men. Sweden, with a population of less than 4,500,000, expends £925,000, has an army of 7,885 men and a reserve force of nearly 140,000 men. Norway, with a population of less than 2,000,000, has an army of 12,750 (peace footing), and of 18,000 (war footing), 20 ships of war, with 156 guns, manned by 2,393 men, and a reserve of 62,000. Denmark, with a population of less than 2,000,000, expends £1,114,000, has an army of 37,000 men, 33 ships, with 291 guns, manned by 1,125 men and a reserve of 32,393. Greece, with a population of less than a million and a half, expends £336,757, has an army of 14,061 men, a navy of 14 ships, manned by 653 men, and a reserve of 24,000. Canada, with nearly 4,000,000 of population, has only a poorly equipped militia force of 43,729, of which she expends only £200,000. These figures speak for themselves, and almost make unnecessary the excellent argument which follows, by which the plea is so well supported. Let any Canadian compare Canada with the Netherlands or with Denmark, and he will appreciate the motive of these two loyal militiamen in presenting their plea. Again, "in Great Britain the people are taxed $6.86 per head per annum; in France $4.50; in Prussia, $2.20; and in the United States (exclusive of the State militia) $1.39 per head, while in Canada we only burden ourselves with 14 cents per head of our population for militia purposes."

Most readers will agree with the writers that no "Canadian would object to that tax being doubled or quadrupled." To the question why a militia should be supported which in peace is not required, and in war would be inadequate as a protection against invasion, "Two militiamen" answer by an appeal to history. They recapitulate the services of the Canadian militia from 1775, when Quebec was held by it against the enemy till the arrival of British reinforcements, until the occurrence of the riots of the last few years. In 1812, 1813, in 1837, in 1862, in 1865, in 1866-70, what would the country have done had there been no militia to repel such attacks? "Two militiamen" then deal with the question as to what principle will render the force most efficient at least cost, and come to the conclusion that the nearest approach to our system, as defined by law, is the Danish system. Having glanced at its working and results and given a brief sketch of the Swiss system, they ask, "What are we to do towards the same end?" To this they reply that "no hurried extension of the present system is necessary or would be prudent." "But," they add, "the framework must be built in time of peace, upon such solid foundation that it will neither shrink nor give war under pressure of war." Sufficient funds must be provided to carry on the work regularly, and the vote should be a standing sum, not subject to legislative caprice. Once the country has decided what it can afford to spend annually, let those persons who are held responsible for the efficiency of the force be held responsible for its proper expenditure. After showing that there is no object for which the people at large are more willing to submit to outlay, and that there is no money so evenly distributed through the country as the money paid to the militia, the article closes with an appeal to the community to conquer the the apathy with which the past struggles for existence of the militia force have been regarded. And this appeal is accompanied by the warning that, if the present force is discouraged to death, the law providing for the establishment of the ballot must be executed and, instead of employees, employers may be pressed into the ranks. All that is asked is that the provisions of the militia law be slightly emended and rigidly enforced, that a little more money be spent in the actual training of the men, and that the Canadian people take a living interest and pride in their citizen soldiery and encourage them by precept and example, stimulating rather than retarding their efforts to fulfill their duty.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Monday, 23 January 2017

Permanent Corps; Issue of Clothing, 1892
Topic: Canadian Militia

Militia General Orders
Headquarters, Ottawa, 29th April, 1892

GENERAL ORDERS (8)

No. 1

PERMANENT CORPS

Issue of Clothing

The following changes in the issue of clothing to Permanent Corps will take effect from the 1st May, 1892 .

1.     Two serge jackets will be issued in the second year of the soldier's service instead of a tunic, and an alternate issue of one tunic and one serge jacket, or two serge jackets will be continued during the remainder of his service.

2.     No special clothing or distinctive marks allowed for privates of the Infantry School employed as bandsmen.

3.     Clothing will be issued on fixed dates twice a year as follows:

(a .)     "Summer issue" to be made on the 1st April and taken into wear on the 1st May, consisting of—

  • 1 serge jacket.
  • 1 tunic or second serge jacket
  • 1 pair summer trousers.
  • 1 pair summer boots.
  • 1 forage cap.

(b.)     "Winter issue" to be made on the 1st September and taken into wear on the 1st October, consisting of—

  • 1 pair cloth trousers.
  • 1 winter cap.
  • 1 pair winter boots.

The interval of one month is allowed to admit of the clothing being fitted, to the satisfaction of the officer commanding the Troop, Battery or Company, before being taken into wear.

4.     Men who become entitled to new clothing in the period between the 1st May and 1st October, will receive the summer issue as soon as possible after the first named date . Those who become entitled to the issue between the 1st October, 1892, and the 1st May, 1893, will receive the winter issue for wear on the first named date, and the summer issue similarly on the latter date.

5 .     Recruits joining during the course of a summer period will be given the complete summer issue. Those joining during the winter period w ill be given the summer issue (with the exception of summer trousers) in advance. Tunics will in no case be issued to recruits during the period of probation fixed by paragraph 23, Regulations for Permanent Corps .

6.     Soldiers whose term of service expires within either of the above mentioned periods will not be issued in advance with new clothing in respect of their uncompleted term of service.

The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Thursday, 12 January 2017

Total Establishment of the Canadian Forces (1897)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Total Establishment of the Canadian Forces (1897)

The Daily Telegraph, Quebec, P.Q., 14 October 1897

The total establishment of the permanent force and active militia of Canada for 1897-98 is 36,188 of all ranks, and 3,551 horses, made up as follows:—

  • Permanent force,
    • Cavalry, all ranks, 145 men and 101 horses,
    • Artillery, 340 men and 78 horses,
    • Infantry, 317 men and 4 horses;

[This is] an increase over last year of two men and one horse. The cavalry is increased from 132 to 145, and the artillery and infantry reduced from 344 to 340 and 324 to 317 respectively.

  • Active militia,
    • Cavalry, all ranks, 2,383, and increase of 268,
    • horses, 2,181 instead of 1,940;
    • Artillery, 4,052 men and and 835 horses;
    • , 212, and increase of 61;
    • , 28,739 men and 352 horses, a reduction of 223 men and 3 horses.

Of the whole force the increase is 353 men and 679 horses.

The following are the changes in the 7th Military District:—

Total strength of "B" Battery is 43 officers and men, and 23 horses. A veterinary lieutenant has been added to the force, and one gunner reduced. No. 1 and 2 companies of the R.C.A. are reduced by four. While a major, a captain and an orderly room clerk have been added, a lieutenant and six gunners have been reduced, leaving the present total strength 167 officers and men, and seven horses.

The Queen's Own Canadian Hussars, which formerly consisted of two troops, is now a squadron with one major, one captain, two lieutenants, two second lieutenants, surgeon-major, veterinary lieutenant, and paymaster, the ranks of adjutant and quartermaster being absorbed, as well as several of the non-commissioned ranks, which now consists of nine instead of eleven, the reduction being in the regimental sergeant-major and troops sergeant-majors, there being but one of the latter at present.

The First Field Battery is now a six-gun battery, with a total strength of 102 men, of all ranks, instead of 79, and 49 horses instead of 29, necessitating an increase of one officer, two sergeants, two corporals, two bombardiers, two trumpeters, thirteen gunners and two drivers.

The Quebec Garrison Artillery company detached from the Levis companies, 100 strong, as follows: One major, one captain, two lieutenants, one second lieutenant, one company sergeant-major, quartermaster sergeant, four sergeants, four corporals, four bombardiers, one trumpeter, and eighty gunners.

The total rank and file of the Royal Rifles remains the same as last year, 278 men instead of 277 (the addition being a paymaster), made up of twenty-six officers, six staff-sergeants (an addition of six), eighteen corporals, six drummers or buglers, twenty-four bandsmen, and 180 privates. There is a reduction of six privates to make up for the increase of sergeants.

The strength of the Ninth Battalion is 368, same as formerly, the only change being twenty-four instead of eighteen sergeants.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Tuesday, 3 January 2017

Canadian Militia to Hong Kong (1898)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Canadian Militia to Hong Kong (1898)

Chance for Canadian Militia

Daily Mail and Empire, Toronto, Ont., 3 January 1898

New York, Jan. 2.—The London Correspondent of the Sun cables:—

"The Sun is enabled to say that in the event of trouble in the far East the Canadian militia have an opportunity of covering themselves with glory. The War Department and the Admiralty have between them drawn up a scheme whereby a battlion of this militia will be hurried to Hong Kong from Vancouver the minute war seems imminent. They would reach China long before any force from England could get there, and it is thought their cooperation would boom the Imperial unity idea. Presumably the views of the Dominion Government had been ascertained beforehand, and some steps have been taken to find out whether the gallant militiamen would be willing to follow glory to the cannon's mouth."

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Wednesday, 14 December 2016

The Most Efficient Cavalry Corps (1897)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Most Efficient Cavalry Corps (1897)

"Military News," The Montreal Gazette, 4 December 1897

The Montreal Hussars are to be heartily congratulated upon being the most efficient cavalry corps, as proved by the recent comparative efficiency returns. The results, in order of merit, are as follows:—

The marks were distributed as follows:—

  • Clothing and accoutrements, arms and saddlery, armories, sword exercise, interior economy and books and records – 10 points each.
  • Horses, squadron drill mounted – 20 points each.
  • Answers to questions by officers – 12 points.
  • Regimental drill by the commanding officer – 30 points.

To this is added the value of individual target practice and from it deducted the points for absentees from troops inspection and target practice. This gives the regimental figure of merit as shown above.

The full and detailed figures are given in the present issue of the Military Gazette. It is noticeable that in the returns of the Montreal Hussars that the total possible points were gained for armories, interior economy and books and records, and answers to questions by officers. For target practice a fair amount of marks were gained and for regimental drill by the C.O. 25 out of a possible 30 points. Lieut.-Col. Markham's corps is evidently the one with crack shots, for their target practice is away ahead of the others.

Major Whitley and the officers and men of the Montreal Hussars cannot be too highly complimented on this very successful result, the result of their first annual inspection as a separate organization. It will be remembered that last summer at the inspection Major Lessard, inspector of cavalry, gave the very highest credit and encouragement to Major Whitley and his men.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Saturday, 10 December 2016

Canadian Cavalry (1893)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Canadian Cavalry (1893)

Troopers from Quebec—Quartered in the Old Barracks

The Toronto Daily Mail, 23 August 1893

The Province of Ontario now boasts of a Cavalry school. The Royal Canadian Dragoons, as they are called, left Quebec on Monday morning, at eight o'clock. They came by C.P.R. special, and were expected at the Queen's wharf here at ten o'clock yesterday morning, but it was half an hour later before the train pulled in. Lieut.-Col. Otter, D.A.G., and Capt Macdougall, with the band of No. 2 Co., C.R.I. were on hand to welcome the newcomers. Whilst the horses and baggage were being disembarks the band played several quick-steps. Among those present to witness the arrival was |Lieut.-Col. F.C. Denison, M.P. When everything was in readiness the troops started on the march to its new quarters, preceded by the band of No. 2 Co., C.R.I., which played the march commonly known as "Knock 'Em in the Old Kent Road." The infantry men in the barracks formed up and cheered the troopers as they came in. It is altogether likely the troop will be doubled in strength shortly, and the Cavalry school will be in full blast in a few days. The number of applications for admission to the school from officers of cavalry corps in the surrounding country is very large. Five officers are attached to the school, the troop being in command of Lieut.-Col. Turnbull. The troopers are quartered in the old stone barracks on the western side of the quadrangle. The officers will belong to the officers' mess of No. 2 Co. The Government will at once take into consideration the advisability of increasing the barracks accommodation for the officers. The accommodation for the infantry officers attending the school was rather limited, and with the increase in the permanent staff almost all the available room will be taken up. The two married cavalry officers will have to find quarters outside the officers' building. The troopers wear dark blue uniform with yellow facings, and they look very smart. Many of the men have seen active service. Captain F.T. Lessard is adjutant, Mr. W. Forester 1st lieutenant, and Capt. Hall, of "B" Battery, is attached as veterinary surgeon, and rumour has it that he will shortly be transferred to the cavalry. The trip from Montreal was very agreeable.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Friday, 2 December 2016

Royal Military College of Canada (1891)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Royal Military College of Canada (1891)

Northern Messenger, Montreal & New York, 17 April 1891
From an obituary/biographical sketch; Captain Huntley Mackey, R.E.

The Royal Military College, of Canada, writes the assistant secretary to the High Commissioner for Canada to a London paper, was founded in Kingston in the year 1875, and was opened in June 1876 with a class of eighteen cadets and a staff consisting of a commandant, a captain of cadets, and three professors.

The only available building at first was the old Naval Barrack at Point Frederick, now used as a dormitory. The present college building was completed in the summer of 1878; new batches of cadets were at first admitted every six months, and by June, 1878, when those who had originally joined completed their course, the number had increased to about ninety. The staff had in the meanwhile been gradually added to, and is now complete with a Commandant (Major-General; D.R. Cameron, R.A., C.M.G.), ten Professors, three Instructors, Staff-Adjutant, Medical Officer, and Paymaster, etc.

The total number of cadets approved for admission to the present date is about 250. Of these 235 actually joined. The number who have graduated is 135. The number of cadets who have, so far, been gazetted to commissions in the Imperial Army, between the Cavalry, Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, and Infantry services, is sixty-nine. In addition to these ex-cadets have been appointed to Commissions in the Mounted Police of Canada, the Schools of Artillery, Schools of Infantry, and to the Staff of the Royal Military College.

Of the cadets who have not obtained military employment, the greater portion have become civil engineers, and the services of these gentlemen have been much sought after, and very highly valued, not only in Canada, but in the United States also. Two of the graduates are employed on the Hydrographical Survey of the Canadian Lakes, three on the Geological Survey, and about seven in other Government Departments. About thirty cadets took part in the suppression of the Rebellion in the Northwest in 1885. The present strength of the cadets is about eight-five, and this may be expected to increase, as some twenty-four may be admitted every year. The age of admission is over fifteen and under eighteen years of the 1st of January preceding the entrance examinations, which takes place annually in the month of June.

The College course, being a four years' one, allows ample time not only for a thorough military training, but also for the study of Civil Engineering, Civil Surveying, Physics, Practical Chemistry, and other subjects which are naturally of great use to cadets in civil life, the course comprising Military Drills, both Infantry, Artillery, and Engineer; Signalling, Fencing, Riding, tactics, Strategy, Military Administration and Law, Fortification and Military Engineering, Mathematics and Mechanism, Astronomy, Geology and Mineralogy, Chemistry and Electricity, etc.

The college possesses a small observatory, and a most valuable assortment of surveying instruments, a most complete chemical laboratory, physical apparatus of almost every description, and a good selection of drawing and other models.

All of this has been gradually built up, and, needless to say, at great expense to the Dominion. But the growth of the college in public estimation warrants the expenditure, and it is an institution of which Canada may well feel proud; in fact, its success has been so noted that it seems likely a similar college will shortly be started in Australia.

Would space admit, much more might be said in justice to the Royal Military College of Canada, tending, as it does, to develop a true and loyal spirit towards the Mother Country.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Updated: Friday, 2 December 2016 12:25 AM EST
Friday, 25 November 2016

The Militia System of the Dominion (1871)
Topic: Canadian Militia

The Militia System of the Dominion (1871)

Many battalions are provided with colours and bands, and during the annual training the officers generally mess together. A very sensible arrangement, ending both to increase a military feeling and to create an impression on the enemy is the supplying of infantry with uniforms similar to that worn by the Imperial army.

The Daily Standard, Victoria, Vancouver Island, 31 July 1871

A short time since we gave a brief summary of the militia law of the Dominion, shadowing forth how it would affect the Province. In a recent article we gave a somewhat imperfect idea of the military stores of the Dominion. We now find, in the London Saturday Review, an article on the military system of Canada, and as it grasps and handles the subject in such a masterly manner, supplying an amount of information difficult to get every day, we have given up our editorial space to lay an extract before our readers this morning. Here is the extract:

While we in England have been employed in noisily discussing the best defensive organization, the Canadian appear to have quietly, with a minimum both of cost to the country and hardship to individuals, solved the question. Indeed, we should say that, with the exception of Prussia and Switzerland, Canada is far in advance, as regards defensive organization, of every country in the world. After calm consideration and successive elaborations, the following results have been attained. The foundation of the system is the axiom that every man owes it to his country to serve in its defence against its enemies. All British subjects between the ages of eighteen and sixty—with a few necessary exceptions—are liable to military service. The exceptions referred to are judges, ministers of religion, professors in Colleges or Universities, the officials in penitentiaries and public lunatic asylums, persons disabled by infirmity, and the only son of a widow, being her sole support. Half-pay and retired officers of the regular army and navy, sailors and pilots when employed in their calling, and masters of public schools are enrolled, but are only liable to actual service in case of war, invasion or insurrection. All others are both enrolled and liable to serve when called upon, and are divided into four classes, constituting the whole—with mere nominal exceptions—of the adult population of the colony, constitute the regular or reserve Militia. The total population of the North American Confederation is estimated at about 4,000,000, and the number liable to service at 675,000 men. For purposes of organization, the whole country is divided into nine military districts, which are further subdivided into twenty two brigade and one hundred and eight-six regimental divisions. The Minister of Militia and Defence is at the head of the whole organization, and is assisted by a chief executive officer styled the Adjutant General, who has under him at headquarters a deputy. The Militia of each district in under command of a Deputy Adjutant General, and in each brigade division there is a brigade major, who seems, however, to be simply a staff officer, and to exercise no actual command. To each regimental division are assigned a lieutenant colonel and two majors, and to each company division a captain and two subalterns. The regimental and company divisions correspond as closely as possible to electoral and municipal divisions. The regimental officers attached to the Reserve Militia reside in their respective districts, and are appointed principally for purposes of enrollment and ballot; consequently, the recruiting and organizing staff would not be, as would be the case with us, dislocated in the event of an invasion, but a continual flow of recruits to the active army could be kept up. The organization we have described, except as regards deputy adjutant generals and, to a certain extent, brigade majors, is essentially of a reserve character, and simply provides for the immediate carrying out of any measures deemed necessary without imposing any actual duty in time of peace. In England, on the contrary, the organization for the ballot is not to be commenced until the emergency arises.

We now come to the actual army of Canada, or, as it is termed, the Active Militia. At present the consists entirely of corps raised by voluntary enlistment, and numbers on paper 44,519 men, or 1 in 15 of all men liable to serve, and 1 in 100 of the population. The different arms of the service are thus represented:

  • Cavalry, 1,666, chiefly organized in isolated squadrons and troops;
  • 10 field batteries with 42 guns, 441 horses, and 750 men;
  • 4 companies of engineers, 232 men;
  • 3 marine companies, 174 men; and
  • 73 battalions of infantry numbering 36,729 men, and
  • 2 battalions for Service in the Red River District, 862 men.

In addition to the above, twenty-five new corps are in process of formation. When organized, they will raise the strength of the Active Militia to 45,040 men.

According to the Militia law of the Dominion, it is only required that the Active Militia should amount to 40,000 men, furnished in due proportion by the different districts, and to be raised by ballot if necessary. Hitherto there has been no necessity to have recourse to the ballot; there is, however, a growing feeling in the Dominion that voluntary enlistment involves undue hardship on individuals, and it seems probable that the ballot will ere long be brought into operation. At present, volunteers enlist for three years, but according to the law, men obtained by ballot would serve only two years. At the end of their service in the Active Militia the men who compose it re-enter the Reserve, and are not liable to be called out until all other men in the same company division have volunteered or been balloted to serve. The number of men called out for training each year is 40,000, and the number of days' drill is sixteen, during which the men receive pay. A system of assembling the troops in each brigade in camps for the purpose of annual training has also been introduced with the best possible results, and the practice is likely to be extended. During the time that the militia is embodied, it is subject to the Queen's regulations and the Articles of War, and, as a matter of fact, discipline appears to be thoroughly maintained. Rifle practice by companies is sedulously practised, and skill in the use of the rifle is encouraged by the bestowal of prizes at the annual training. The great assimilation to the customs and practices of the regular troops is remarkable even in social and ornamental details. Many battalions are provided with colours and bands, and during the annual training the officers generally mess together. A very sensible arrangement, ending both to increase a military feeling and to create an impression on the enemy is the supplying of infantry with uniforms similar to that worn by the Imperial army. It may be remarked here that the men of the Canadian Active Militia are far taller and larger than the soldiers of our regular regiments. As regards both combatant and non-combatant staff, no efforts have been spared to render the local army efficient, and a still greater improvement is to be looked for shortly. It is proposed that then Adjutant-General of the Militia should be styled in future Major-General Commanding the Militia; that his staff officer—the present Deputy Adjutant-General at Headquarters—should be turned Adjutant-General, and receive the rank of Colonel; that the Deputy Adjutant generals who command districts should receive the title of Colonel on the staff, and that all staff officers should in future before appointment, pass a special examination, and only hold their offices for five years, and not be eligible for reappointment in the same office. With a view to obtaining properly qualified officers for the staff, it is recommended that a Canadian Staff College should be established; and in order to obtain competent instructors for it, the suggestion is made that the Imperial Government be asked to allow a certain number of Canadian officers to join the Staff College at Sandhurst. But the Canadian authorities have already take practical steps to secure a good professional training for their officers, by the institution of schools of instruction, in which measure they were far in advance of Mr. Cardwell. These schools of instruction were first established in 1864, and already nearly 6,000 young men have passed through them. Some of the graduates now hold commissions in the Active Militia, while other will be provided for as vacancies occur. And on an increase to the Active Militia, being required, would furnish an ample supply of well-qualified officers. Moreover the boys in most large schools undergo elementary drill. Thus it will be seen that a large proportion of males of all ages from ten to sixty receive a certain amount—in some cases a very considerable amount—of military training, and that, if the ballot is enforced, there will in course of time be probably about half a million of men more or less trained to arms. We have shown that the combatant and recruiting staff is completely organized, and considerable attention is now being paid to the administrative staff or store department, and arrangements have been made for a due supply of all the arms, camp equipment, and other stores required for field service or camps of instruction.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EST
Saturday, 15 October 2016

Two Thousand Troops in Line (1900)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Two Thousand Troops in Line (1900)

Toronto Garrison Parades to a Divine Service
Was a Splendid Spectacle
Crowds on the Streets—Sermon at Massey Hall by Rev. Armstrong Black

Daily Mail and Empire, 15 October 1900

Toronto dearly loves a military spectacle, and it is not surprising that a great portion of the populace lined the streets yesterday to witness the autumn church parade of the city garrison. And a very imposing spectacle it was, confirming Toronto's just pride in its citizen soldiery. The splendid brigade of 2,000 men represented every branch of the service, horse, foot, and artillery. It was a body fit to stand with the flower of the British army.

"They are much larger men than the British regulars," said a bystander, who accompanied the first Canadian contingent from Cape Town to Paardeberg. "the Guards are the only Old Country regiment I saw who can compare with them in stature."

Men From the Front

Sprinkled through the ranks were a number of South African heroes, whose presence denoted the new Imperial role of the Canadian militia, as well as its valor and devotion, which are not new. Among these campaigners were Capt. A.E. Ryerson, Pte. C. Millar, and Pte. James S. Taylor, of the Governor-General's Body Guards; Sergt. Kennedy, Sergt. Hewitt, and Pte. Ward, of the Queen's Own Rifles; Pte Vickers and Pte. Cuthbert, of the Grenadiers; and Corp. Smith and Pte. Mitchell, of the Highlanders.

Lieut.-Col. Peters, D.O.C., was the commander-in-chief, his staff being Lieut.-Col. Young, Major Heward (R.C.D.), Major Galloway (14th Regiment, Kingston), Lieut.-Col. Graveley (superintendent district stores), Assistant Surgeon-General Ryerson, Major Heakes, and Lieut. Carling (R.G.). The infantry were brigaded under Lieut.-Col. Delamare, his staff officer being Capt. Wyatt.

Order of the Parade

The garrison left the Armoury about 3 p.m. in the following order:—

The several regiments combined to make a striking pictorial effect owing to the variety and contrast of colour presented by their uniforms and accoutrements. It was a very inspiring sight for the multitudes along the line of march.

The Dragoons, 39 officers and men, were in command of Capt. Johnson, and the Field Battery, 63 strong, was officered by Capt. Grier, Lieut. Hughes, and Lieut. Brown.

The full strength of the Body Guards was 161. Lieut.-Col. Clarense Denison commanded, assisted by Lieut.-Col. Dunn, Surg.-Major Grasert, Capt. Campbell, Capt. Thomson, and Capt. Peters (adjutant). "A" squadron mustered 35, "B" squadron 35, and "C" squadron 42.

The Royal Grenadiers, 526 strong, were officered by Lieut.-Col. Bruce, in command, Major Tassie, Major Stimson, Surg.-Major King, Capt. Montgomery, and Rev. A.H. Baldwin, chaplain. The company strength, rank and file, was as follows:— "A" 32, "B" 49, "C" 38, "D" 31, "E" 44, "F" 35, "G" 48, "H", 41 "I" 34, "K" 47.

The Queen's Own had the strongest showing, 609 all ranks. Major Murray commanded, the other officers being Major Gunther (adjutant), Capt. Thorne, Surg.-Major Palmer, and Paymaster Lee. The rank and file numbered 417, the company strength being:— "A" 43, "B" 47, "C" 42, "D" 41, "E" 34, "F" 47, "G" 45, "H" 43, "I" 36, "K" 36. There were 6 captains, 17 subalterns, and 34 sergeants.

The bonnetted Highlanders were 454, all ranks. The officers were:—Lieut.-Col. Macdonald in command, Major Robertson, Surg.-Major Stewart, Capt. Donald (adjutant), and Major Orchard (quartermaster). The rank and file numbered 312, distributed by companies as follows:— "A" 43, "B" 32, "C" 35, "D" 38, "E" 37, "F" 42, "G" 45, "H" 43. There were 7 captains, 7 subalterns, and 26 sergeants.

The Medical Service Corps made its first appearance in garrison parade, and the neat and soldierly appearance of the young men, who are mostly students, excited very favourable comment. They were handsomely uniformed, and marched in capital style. In fact, the marching of every one of the regiments was so uniformly good that it would be hard to say any particular company excelled. The route was along Beverly, College, and Yonge streets to Massey Hall.

At Massey Hall

Patriotic Sermon by Rev. Armstrong Black

A great audience assembled for the divine service, both galleries being filled by the general public, and the ground floor and platform by the garrison. The band of the Governor-General's Body Guards furnished the instrumental music, which was admirably rendered. The devotional exercises were conducted by Rev. Armstrong Black, assisted by Rev. Arthur Baldwin, and the vast congregation joined heartily in the singing.

The sermon, which was delivered by Rev. Armstrong Black, was of a fervidly patriotic character. He spoke of the time, less than a year ago, when the cloud of adversity lowered upon the British Empire, and there were searchings of heart among the British people. It was true that Great Britain was caught unprepared, but she was unprepared in a noble sense, because she had been too generous to her foe, and too trustful in her confidence when she negotiated for the rights and liberties of citizens in a land which British arms had saved not two generations ago. It was well for England to know how loyal and self-sacrificing were her sons in the colonies. That she had splendidly learned, and that she would never forget.

"She is strong in your strength," said the preacher, "Henceforward your weal or woe will be identified with the Motherland."

The speaker said that Canada had stepped into the arena of the world since her sons had been brigaded with the gallant lads of Britain. The reaction of that service to the Mother Land had more than compensated Canada. She was no longer regarded as a colony, but as a nation. Only the other day Lord Rosebery, speaking at a banquet tendered Lord Hopetoun, the first Governor-General of Federated Australia, referred to Canada as a subsidiary empire. In concluding, the speaker said that in this new world, and in the new century now dawning, the problems of humanity were to be worked out, and it behooved everyone to realize his responsibility, and strive to do his duty to God and to man. He urged the soldiers to cultivate a noble manhood, to be obedient to the voice of conscience, and to be good citizens in times of peace.

The troops returned to the Armouries via Yonge, King, Simcoe, and Queen streets. Dense crowds again lined the route.

The actual number of officers, non-commissioned officers, and men in the parade was 1,924.

elipsis graphic

From the same edition of the Daily Mail and Empire:

Ottawa Garrison Parade

Special to the Mail and Empire.

Ottawa, Oct 14.—The annual church parade of the Ottawa brigade took place this afternoon, and was witnessed by thousands. The corps taking part were the G.G.F.G., 43rd Regiment, P.L. Dragoons, 2nd Field Battery, and No. 2 Bearer Co., the total number on parade being 930. The men were reviewed by General O'Grady Haley and Col. Aylmer, adjutant-general, as they returned from church. The Guards looked well in their usual scarlet, and the 43rd in Khaki.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Monday, 10 October 2016

Canada's Militia Masquerade (1938)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Canada's Militia Masquerade (1938)

Now Unpopular, Obsolete, it Needs Overhauling for National Service

The militia is ill-equipped. Service uniforms are old, badly fitted. Web equipment is broken. The men have no boots. Generally a lack of imagination has been shown.

The Financial Post, 3 December 1938 By Lt.-Col. Louis Keene

Lieut.-Col. Louis Keene, who rose from the ranks during the war and has served actively in the militia, in the accompanying article, urges the complete reorganization of Canada's defence forces which he brands as not just antiquated but unpopular. On the foundation of Canadian defence he would build a national service corps.

A few Sundays ago Toronto saw four parades all in the trappings of tradition. The Ancient Order of Foresters were there in their picturesque regalia, The Queen's Own in their last century rifle green uniforms, the Grenadiers in their guard's uniforms, the Toronto Scottish in their hodden grey kilts.

People on the street, if they thought at all, probably felt quite secure in the knowledge that the brave men of Canada's militia would meet the foe without flinching.

Equipped for action (as these men will be in ill-fitting uniforms, obsolete equipment and weapons, this whole force, despite their bravery, could be destroyed by one sections of two cars of trained, well-armored fighting vehicles.

Why perpetuate the obsolescent Canadian militia?

Antiquated, Unpopular

If my judgment is correct, it has little or no public support. It is antiquated, ill-equipped, unpopular. It has hew if any links with any other part of Canadian life.

A few weeks ago competent authorities stated that we are unable to protect ourselves on land, sea, or in the air. Some steps are now being taken to remedy this situation.

Following staff reorganization dating back to 1936, efforts have been made to remove some of the glaring weaknesses of our antiquated system. As yet the rank and file have felt little of its impact. And nothing has been done to fit the militia for the larger responsibilities of national and community life.

Yet canada spends from $15 to $20 millions annually on its militia. It boasts many fine traditions, much able, conscientious personnel.

Is it not time we looked closely at some of the criticisms which have been levelled at it; time we took a national stocktaking to see what might be done to link this branch of public service with the larger responsibilities of individual and national well being?

In other countries, soldiers are used to aid the community. A few years ago in Sweden there was a big forest fire and 10,000 Swedish troops were turned out to aid in putting out the flames.

Even the German army is used for helpful community work. This summer they were turned out to help the farmers fight a plague of caterpillars.

National Guards in the United States are called out to restore order and help in times of disaster. In France, service in a fire brigade is counted as service—army service.

Overall Army

Britain now has her "Overall" Army and her Women's Air Guard. She is paving the way for volunteer service which can be used for achievement in peace as well as strength in war. Why should Canada not have her own National Service Corps?

It could be of great peace-time service.

In northern communities it could be trained in fore protection to help preserve our timber wealth. Other communities have equally important public service jobs to be done. Jobs that would appeal to men and women with a sense of good citizenship. Equally important is the job such as National Service Corps could do to train the individual; to build up his physique, his morale, his technical skill. Yet today the Canadian militia is ignored, treated with indifference.

Why is this so?

For one thing our militia is antiquated.

It is an out-of-date carryover from the period of the Crimean War. It was formed at the time when England was so short of men that she had to withdraw all her troops from Canada. At that time our young country was told that it would have to look after its own defence. Immediately and enthusiastically the militia was formed. It was new and up to date, smart, popular and efficient.

As the peaceful years rolled by the threat of foreign foes ceased to worry us. The militia settled down to being a responsible part of Canadian life. No one of importance missed being in some way connected with their local militia unit. There was some remarkably fine shooting done years ago by the old militia. Even rural regiments had their fine shots who went to Bisley.

Pushed Aside in 1914

The great opportunity which came in practically every other military force in the world was, of course, the Great War. But in Canada the political situation, plus jealousy and muddling pushed the miltia to one side. A new setup was arranged.

Thousands of Canadians who fought in the war had nothing to do with the organized militia in any form either before, during or after the war. Great opportunities to build a desirable tradition were lost. When the war was over, few of the returning soldiers were interested in the militia.

The militia never got another chance to get back its rightful position in the community. After the war was over, General Sir Arthur Currie, at a famous reunion dinner, asked returned officers to look after the militia. This meant nothing to many of them. They didn't bother.

At the time of the Coronation, instead of a smart, single unit being sent over to represent the whole of Canada, a miscellaneous, conglomerate group was formed. It was one of the few units which was not youthful and dressed up for this gala occasion. Without the Royal Canadian Mounted Police the Canadian contingent would have made a very poor showing at the Coronation.

The crowning blow of all was at the time of the international crisis when war seemed neat—a matter of hours—and patriotic citizens rushed to military district headquarters and offered to raise battalions. The Canadian Corps offered to furnish a division of troops. The militia was not even considered, was again given a back seat.

The militia is ill-equipped. Service uniforms are old, badly fitted. Web equipment is broken. The men have no boots. Generally a lack of imagination has been shown.

Men do not like getting out of their own civilian clothes and putting on old uniforms.

Recently at Camp Borden we saw rifles tied with handkerchiefs to indicate anti-tank guns. Even the new anti-aircraft guns were on mounts dated 1918. At the last camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake, the airplane operating with us was 16 years old. The small arms ammunition we used at the rifle ranges was dated 1917.

The militia is ignored by most people. It has not the support of the employers of labor. Businessmen do not take it seriously.

Employers must be shown that the discipline and training which men can learn in camp should be of value to them in their business. Today they feel that by letting men go to camp they are doing them a great favor.

As now constituted, the militia has not the support of the workers. It has very little appeal to the imagination of youth who have many other spare-time attractions unknown 30 years ago.

Country Lulled to Sleep

For 20 years we have listened to people condemn the militia, condemn cadet training, so that the whole country has been lulled to sleep.

For years we have been subject to a continual barrage of pacifist literature, the Cry Havocs, the films. We have listened to sob lectures and our prayers have been full of the soothing syrup of peace so that we are now fat, coddled, comfortable, unafraid, unarmed, unprepared.

Napoleon said of London: "What a city to sack!" It might well be said now of Canada, what a country to exploit.

When any civilian job has to be done which would prove of military training value, militia are scarcely considered. For example, in building the Toronto-Hamilton highway, at least one bridge had to be blown up. Here would have been a grand opportunity for our militia engineers to have had the chance to try out their training in demolitions, an important part of their war-time activities.

Our militia is never expected to do anything constructive. There is no affiliation with the youth of the country, service clubs or other groups, and there is very little link with veterans. It stands alone. So, instead of being a tremendously vital thing in the community at large, of which the public is proud, it is struggling along with the aid of a few public-spirited officers, N.C.O.'s and men who must devote a great deal of their time to an expensive, unpopular duty.

Complete Overhaul

I suggest that a complete overhaul is necessary.

One alternative is to develop an organization with wider opportunities for constructive work with individuals, with the community, with the nation as a whole—an organization which will be of use for peace as well as war.

The name "militia" is long out of date. It has been abolished by every other country that ever used the term.

"Militia," like the name "Regiment of Foot," came into effect years ago. Both names have long since disappeared from the vocabulary of Anglo-Saxon countries except as historical terms.

The army in England has had a great capacity for improvisation, It has been slower to recognize the necessity for reorganization, yet during the last hundred years two extensive reorganizations have been carried out. The first was by Cardwell 70 years ago. The second was by Haldane 35 years later, following the Boer War.

When Cardwell came into office as Secretary of State for War at the end of 1868 he found the army in a state of obvious unfitness to meet an emergency, yet our reorganization was prior to this.

Haldane reorganized the militia and the volunteers. He converted the former into a special reserve to feed the regular army with drafts in war, and the latter into a territorial force. This was the end of the militia. We should have followed Britain's example and reorganized when we threw out the pill box.

Starting Points

One specific reform Canada should adopt at once from British experience is the appointments of a paid adjutant for each non-permanent militia unit. This should be the starting point for other improvements.

Another starting point in reorganization is new equipment. This must be forthcoming immediately in exchange for pre-war uniforms.

The militia needs tanks, steel helmets, gas masks, new equipment and up-to-date weapons if it is to be anything more than a defence farce.

Almost 90% of the time of the Canadian militia officers is spent trying to get the men to turn out. They are under no obligation to attend. They say they do not like the uniforms, they don't like the puttees, they don't like to wear ill-fitting jackets.

Machine power, not manpower, is the determining condition of success in modern warfare. We, in Canada, haven't a sprinkling of the essential machines, so we get more pre-war uniforms at not cost to the public because they are not issued or paid for by units themselves.

We must know something of the weapons which are to be used and we must have the men who can use these machines. If we had new weapons, an overwhelming interest would immediately be created and we would have no trouble getting men in the militia. We could pick and choose them, could interest men who are mechanically minded, students and others who are incorporated into all the other armies in the world.

What possible chance have we to train or make use of the skilled worker who must eventually be the soldier if we have nothing to train with?

We cannot possibly expect to enjoy the benefits of civilization, comfort, security, our boasted high standard of living, even our investments and savings, without doing something to protect them. The most dreadful thing now is that preparation for protection takes time. We cannot spring to arms without having something to spring to. Fortunately some steps in this direction are now being taken.

If a highly industrialized nation like Britain decides to re-arm and three years later is far behind because she has had to make all the basic machinery, dies, stamps before production commences, how much more are we in Canada helpless?

It is not time for new purposes?

If a policeman's sole job was to shoot murderers he would be looked upon very differently to the way we look on him now. The policeman of today is being continually called on to do helpful, constructive jobs. He is looked upon with respect and confidence.

Why can't the militia be linked up in a movement that will be popular, constructive and useful besides "forming fours" and being "steady on parade?"

Think what might be done for the individual by a well-rounded-out militia which would take its place in the larger field of community and national service. The physical instruction training programme in itself would be of great help to many of the organizations of youth, Boy Scouts, Sea Scouts, Girl Guides, Service Clubs, Y.M.C.A.'s. This branch of the service could supply physical, swimming and recreational instruction for boy's camps and the leaders in a general fitness campaign. It could and should work more closely with veterans' organizations.

The militia should have a rehabilitation programme to meet, help and guide unemployed youth, the transients who are now drifting across Canada. There must be given the right kind of leadership. Why should it not come from a national service organization of which the nucleus would be the militia.

Training Opportunities

There should be a training programmes so that members could have the opportunity of learning some other trades than their own outside of office hours and become artists, mechanics or professional men. In this way we could build for the future by increasing the usefulness and earning power of thousands of citizens.

We could give technical opportunities to men and women to learn telephone and telegraph work and other specialized trades, all vital in the life of a nation.

Our armouries are public buildings. Why should they not become centres of community and family life, embracing the activities of all members of the family. They could be used by Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, for all clubs and societies willing to commit themselves and their programme to national service.

In this way existing barriers and mistrust on the part of the general public would be overcome. The individual would benefit. So would the country and the community.

We cannot go on forever feeling that the youth and future of the country is going to be allowed by circumstances to drift safely down the middle of the stream. Responsibility must be taken and the right kind of leadership given. If not, we will suffer as others in the past have suffered when they became lazy and it became too much trouble to look after national affairs.

My plea is that there is no better starting point in such a campaign than a Canadian National Service Corps. To create such a body we should first overhaul the Canadian Militia.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Thursday, 6 October 2016

Regulations for the Annual Drill (1880)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Regulations Issued for the Annual Drill (1880)

The Sarnia Observer, 14 May 1880

In order to bring the expenditure for drill and training of the active militia, for the fiscal year 1880-81, with the appropriation made by Parliament, the strength of the force to be drilled and pid for that year, has been limited by Order-in-Council to 21,250 officers, non-commissioned officers and men, and 1,275 horses. Payments for drill to be made after the commencement of the financial year (1st July.) As the nominal strength of the active militia is in excess of the number which can be paid, and as it is not desirable to reduce the strength of corps below that established for drill and training of 1879-80, viz., forty-two non-commissioned officers and men, including staff sergeants and bandsmen, provision has been made for the selection of the corps which may drill in the different districts, each district being allotted its full quota in proportion to the total strength of all corps therein. The maximum number of officers, non-commissioned officers and men to receive pay for drill in each district will therefore be:—

  • Mil. Dis. No. 1 – 2,500
  • Mil. Dis. No. 2 – 3,600
  • Mil. Dis. No. 3 – 2,000
  • Mil. Dis. No. 4 – 1,300
  • Mil. Dis. No. 5 – 3,300
  • Mil. Dis. No. 6 – 1,500
  • Mil. Dis. No. 7 – 2,200
  • Mil. Dis. No. 8 – 1,500
  • Mil. Dis. No. 9 – 2,200
  • Mil. Dis. No. 10 – 400
  • Mil. Dis. No. 11 – 300
  • Mil. Dis. No. 12 – 450
  • Total – 21,250

In the selections from corps for drill of 1880-81, field batteries of artillery are to be first taken; 2nd, corps in cities; 3rd, corps not drilled last year; 4th, to complete quota authorized, corps to be selected from the different arms in each district, in proportion as their strength bears to each other. When practicable, the selection is also to be by battalion.

Men going to camp a distance of five miles of more will be allowed one and one-half cent per mile in lieu of transport. Six days, exclusive of Sundays, are to be spent in camp. Officers to receive the pay of their ranks. Men will be paid 60 cents per day, and for horses $1 per day will be allowed. For rations—i.e., fuel, food, water, and light—25 cents per day for each man will be allowed, and for horses 35 cents. The officers, non-commissioned officers, gunners and drivers will be paid for the days (not exceeding ten) they are actually present in camp as follows: The officers and non-commissioned officers the pay of their ranks; the gunners and drivers at the rate of 60 cents, and for horses 41 per diem. Rations and forage will not be issued in kind, but an allowance will be granted in lieu thereof for rations (food, fuel, water and light) at the rate of 25 cents for each officer, non-commissioned officer, gunner and driver per diem, and forage at the rate of 35 cents for each horse per diem.

The Senior Subaltern


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT
Saturday, 1 October 2016

Over at the Camp (1900)
Topic: Canadian Militia

Over at the Camp (1900)

How the Militia Pass Their Time at Laprairie
Major-General's Visit
Inspected the men and Their Surroundings Yesterday—Was Well Pleased With What He Saw

The Montreal Gazette, 3 July 1900

Laprairie camp is not at its height, and hard work is the order of every day. Yesterday began the second week of training, and the soldiers now wear the look of veterans. Confederation and its memories were not allowed to interfere with the instruction of "Tommy," and yesterday was, if anything, the hardest day yet. Owing to the bad weather at the end of last week, not over much was done, and on Saturday the officers say that commands simply could not be heard even at short range, on account of the violent wind and rain storm.

The number of volunteers in camp is somewhat less than last year. In all three brigades there are 2,276 officers, non-commissioned officers and men. The cavalry brigade, which is quite a large one, occupies the lower ground to the west, next the river. Above this are the D.O.C.'s and staff headquarters. Then, extending in a long line, parallel with the river, and high up on the ridge, are the two main brigades, English and French, the latter being to the west.

Colonel Aylmer, adjutant-general, and acting Major-General Commanding, arrived at camp yesterday morning, and inspected the men and their surroundings. This was not the final inspection, which will only take place on Thursday, probably, but Colonel Aylmer expressed himself as very well pleased with what he saw, and spoke in particularly complimentary terms of the French brigade. Everyone knows that these men labor under considerable disadvantage, when competing against others, and the words of command are all necessarily in English. The adjutant-general will be at camp again today, and will likely remain until the end of the week. After a field day and inspection, the camp will break up on Saturday. Some of the regiments leave early in the morning.

The general health of the men is excellent. The weather has, of course, been quite cool, and consequently there have not been the usual number of sunstrokes, and other troubles. Drill lasts pretty continuously throughout the day, until four o'clock, when the men are free to do what they like; except those who are detailed for duties, as picquet, guard, etc. Discipline also has been well maintained, and good progress is being made in the drill.

The bearer company will go into camp on Thursday, and be inspected along with the rest. Major Birkett had been working hard, and has got them into good shape. Major Birkett himself has been at camp during the whole time. Accidents have been few, though one man shot his finger off at the ranges the other day. There is no artillery present in camp. They will probably go in September.

The men are all in good spirits, and have not had any "complaints." Many of them yesterday afternoon came across to the city to enjoy themselves as well as they might, after their day's routine was through. Among the officers and their friends there was some convivial confederation for the sake of the Dominion.

Canadian Army Battle Honours


Posted by regimentalrogue at 12:01 AM EDT

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